The vote to sue President Obama was passed 225 to 201. Five conservative Republicans joined Democrats in opposing the lawsuit.
Republicans say the legal action is a result of the president overstepping his power regarding the Affordable Care Act.
President Obama and other Democrats scorn the lawsuit, claiming the effort is merely a stunt designed for Republican voters and a waste of tax-payer money.
No Democrats voted for it.
Republicans have also accused Obama of exceeding his powers in a range of areas, including not notifying Congress before releasing five Taliban members from the U.S. military prison at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, in exchange for captive Army Sergeant Bowe Bergdahl, blocking the deportation of some children who are in the U.S. illegally and waiving some provisions of the No Child Left Behind education law.
Democrats say Obama has acted legally and has simply used the authority he has as chief executive.
Obama leaves office in January 2017.